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Pre-1920s

Overview

Up until the later 1800's instruction was dominated by the "exercise metaphor" and without systemic examination of outcomes. The most significant change here was the shift in towards assessment and testing in instruction. Education during the early twentieth century focused on social efficiency goals, that is schooling for the purposes of training children for the labor market.

Highlights

  • (1832) Wilhelm Wundt referred to as the "Father of Experimental Psychology" and the "Founder of Modern Psychology" established the first laboratory in the world dedicated to experimental psychology
  • (1845) Boston Survey undertaken by Boston School Commitee-wide-scale assessment of student achievement
  • (1890) William James' Principles of Psychology inspired a growing number of graduate-students including Thorndike
  • (1895-1905)Joseph Rice organized assessment program in a number of large school systems used for educational decisions including standardized curriculum
  • (1896) John Dewey while at the University of Chicago, Dewey established a Laboratory School for the purpose of testing his educational theories and their sociological implications
  • (1899) John Dewey publishes The School and Society
  • (1906) Ivan Pavlov publishes his findings on Classical Conditioning
  • (1913) John B. Watson launches the Behaviorist Revolution
  • (1918) William Heard Kilpatrick develops the Project Method
  • E.L. Thorndike-main contributor for shifting the "mind as muscle" idea to designing instruction based on prespecified and socEially useful goals He was also a strong advocate for educational measurement
  • Horace Mann was the most eminent leader of his time advocating public education, teacher training, free libraries

Project Method: purposeful approach to instruction where the activity is in harmony with the learner's own goals

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Last Updated - April 2004