Created by Leilani Carbonell
leilani@my-ecoach.com
Last Updated - April 2004

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1920s

Overview

The 1920's brought objectives-driven learning, individualized instruction, contract learning, and mastery learning. This period brought a movement from the traditional teacher-led instruction to individulaized learning.

Highlights

  • Franklin Bobbit (1918) - advocated utilitarian or social efficiency movement. Emphasized creating relevant outcome and then planning instruction to meet them (Educational Objectives)
  • (1920) John Watson and Rosalie Rayner publish Conditioned Emotioanl Reactions
  • (1922) Edward C. Tolman publishes A New Formula for Behaviorism
  • (1925)Sidney Pressey invents testing and teaching machine
  • Mary Ward and Frederick Burk - established San Francisco Normal School using self-instructional materials
  • Carleton Washburne (Winnetka Plan) and Helen Parkhurst (Dalton Plan) - pre-specified learning outcomes, self-pacing, mastery learning (Individualized Instruction)
  • Individual Learning Plans provided a rationale for continued development of design rather than traditional instruction
  • Mary Ward and Frederick Burk - established San Francisco Normal School

Franklin Bobbit

  • advocated utilitarian or social efficiency movement
  • schools should provide experiences specifically related to those activities demanded of citizens by their society
  • goals for schooling derived from an objective analysis of those skills necessary for successful living

 

Carlteon Washburne

  • While superintendent, Washburne created the Winnetka Plan. The plan included:
    • self-paced, self-instructional, self corrective workbooks
    • when pass satisfactorily, students allowed to move on
    • diagnostic placement tests
    • self-administered tests

     

 

Helen Parkhurst

  • Parkhurst originally developed the "Dalton Plan" for use in and ungraded school for crippled children. The Dalton Plan centered around "contract learning." Students complete tasks at own pace and move on to another contract only when they pass satisfactorily the preceeding goal.

 

 

Mary Ward and Frederick Burk

  • established San Francisco Normal School
    • self-instructional materials that allowed students to learn at their own pace
    • a California Court ruling halted their efforts stating that only the State Board of Education could publish printed instructional materials

     

 

 

 

Sidney Pressey

  • developed a machine to provide drill and practice items to students in his introductory
    courses

 

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created by Leilani Carbonell
leilani@my-ecoach.com
Last Updated - April 2004